Actividad física y ejercicio para una columna saludable

Physical Activity and Exercise for a Healthier Spine

Exercise to Prevent Back Pain and Obesity

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El ejercicio regular puede mejorar su equilibrio , los reflejos y la coordinación. Esto significa que son menos propensos a caer y herirse . Las lesiones causadas por la caída puede significar un desastre para las personas con osteoporosis .

Si tiene osteoporosis, buscar el consejo de su médico antes de comenzar un programa de ejercicios. Para ayudar a revertir la pérdida ósea , el ejercicio debe ser de un tipo e intensidad en particular – y apropiada para su nivel de condición física y el riesgo de fractura .

En general , caminar es una gran manera de comenzar el ejercicio regular . Inicialmente, para caminar mejorar la fortaleza ósea , ya que causa un poco de parte del peso del cuerpo para ser transferidos a los huesos una y otra vez . Sin embargo , el hueso responde mejor a la intensidad , no la duración. Hueso necesita ser desafiado constantemente . Esto se puede lograr mediante la adición de diferentes tipos de actividades de soporte de peso ( baile , patinaje y aeróbic ) y de entrenamiento de fuerza / peso (también llamado entrenamiento de resistencia ) a su programa. Adición de un mayor nivel de resistencia a causa del estrés saludable para los huesos. Hueso responde produciendo más osteoblastos ; el material celular que rellena las cavidades óseas que aumenta la densidad ósea ( 3 ) .

La osteoartritis ( OA) y la artritis reumatoide (AR )
La osteoartritis y la artritis reumatoide (AR ) son condiciones que afectan a la “flexibilidad” de las articulaciones de la columna vertebral (articulaciones facetarias ) . La flexibilidad es la capacidad de una articulación para mover a través de su rango de movimiento . La cantidad de movimiento está determinada en gran parte por la rigidez de los músculos , tendones y ligamentos que unen a las carillas articulares. Cuanto más un músculo se puede estirar , mejor será la flexibilidad de la articulación .

Dolor de espalda : ciática
Para ayudar a prevenir el dolor de espalda baja de la pierna , la espalda y músculos de la cadera deben ser flexibles y fuertes. Pobre flexibilidad y debilidad de los músculos de la espalda , la pelvis y los muslos pueden aumentar la curva de la espalda baja y hacer que las pelvis se incline demasiado hacia delante . La buena postura , junto con los músculos flexibles y fuertes en estas áreas puede ayudar a prevenir la compresión del nervio y dolor de espalda y pierna.

Estado general de Salud
La composición corporal sana significa una alta proporción de la masa corporal magra ( por ejemplo , músculo ) a una pequeña proporción de grasa . El entrenamiento de fuerza puede ayudar a aumentar la tasa metabólica y la reducción de grasa corporal. El aumento de la fuerza muscular ayuda a mantener una buena postura y mecánica corporal durante la actividad . No sólo una buena condición física reduce el riesgo de lesiones , pero aumenta el rendimiento físico, como subir escaleras o cargar las compras con facilidad.

Regular exercise can improve your balance, reflexes and coordination. This means you are less likely to fall and injure yourself. Injuries from falling can mean disaster to someone with osteoporosis.
If you have osteoporosis, seek the advice of your doctor before beginning an exercise program. To help reverse bone loss, exercise must be of a particular type and intensity – and appropriate for your level of fitness and fracture risk.
In general, walking is a great way to start regular exercise. Initially, walking will improve bone strength because it causes some of the body’s weight to be transferred to bones over and over again. However, bone responds best to intensity not duration. Bone needs to be consistently challenged. This can be accomplished by adding different types of weight-bearing activities (dancing, skating, and aerobics) and strength/weight training (also called resistance training) to your program. Adding greater levels of resistance causes healthy stress to bone. Bone responds by making more osteoblasts; the cellular material that fills in bone cavities that increases bone density (3).
Osteoarthritis (OA) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are conditions that affect the ‘flexibility’ of spinal joints (facet joints). Flexibility is the ability of a joint to move through its range of motion. The amount of movement is largely determined by the tightness of muscles, tendons, and ligaments that attach to the facet joints. The more a muscle can stretch, the better the flexibility of the joint.
Low Back Pain: Sciatica 
To help prevent low back pain the leg, back and hip muscles must be flexible and strong. Poor flexibility and weak muscles in the back, pelvis, and thighs can increase the curve of the lower back and cause the pelvis to tilt too far forward. Good posture coupled with flexible and strong muscles in these areas can help prevent nerve compression and low back and leg pain.
General Health
Healthy body composition means a high proportion of lean body mass (eg, muscle) to a small proportion of fat. Strength training can help by raising the metabolic rate and lowering body fat. Increased muscle strength helps to maintain good posture and body mechanics during activity. Not only does good physical conditioning reduce the chance of injury but increases physical performance such as climbing stairs or carrying groceries with ease.

Back Pain Exercise Video Series

Exercise: Helpful Suggestions 
Now that you have learned about many of the benefits a regular program of exercise offers, you need to work exercise into your new healthier lifestyle.
  • Be realistic! It can take 6 to 8 weeks to see some of the benefits; focus on short-term goals. 
  • You may need to buy out time from other activities to add exercise to your schedule.
  • Ask a friend or relative to join you in exercise.
  • If you don’t feel like an entire workout – exercise for 10 minutes. Consistency is important – not how long or hard the exercise. 
  • Keep a written record of your progress.
You will reap rich rewards from the healthy changes you make today in food choices and implementation of regular exercise. You do not have to be thin to be healthy. In fact, a reduction in weight of just 10% can reduce the detrimental effects of obesity.
Many organizations and research facilities are working to learn more about obesity. In the last few decades great progress has been made in identifying the causes as well as making new treatments available.
View Sources
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  • United States Surgeon General. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity.
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  • Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Resource Guide for Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases.
  • Stubbs RJ, Mazlan N, et al. Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans.Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:2275S-81S.
  • Howarth NC, Saltzman E, et al. Dietary fiber and weight reduction. Nutrition Reviews2001;59:129-39.
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